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RULES WITH EXAMPLES (common to all similar exercises types)

OVERHEAD PRESSING MOVEMENTS

* always assess your active range of motion beforehand (even from set to set): keeping hands slightly outside of shoulder-width, the goal is to maintain a position of 90º external rotation (a vertical forearm) throughout where you will be strongest in the range. This is not as common as you think, if necessary, bring butt forward slightly to help achieve
- stabilize weight in-between the chest & back ideally (neutral, no retraction / protraction)
- big stretch at the bottom, lower as far as can be actively controlled while maintaining scapula retraction and depression (keep the abs shortened)
- think about squeezing the elbows together on the ascent (not about bringing the dumbbells together); reach for the ceiling at the top
- as well as shoving ‘out,' intention can also be applied by shoving ‘down’ on this exercise; shoving ‘out’ spreads the emphasis across the back, shoving down isolates the lats more.

DUMBBELL OVERHEAD PRESS:

- ideally perform seated, remembering to keep the abs ’tight’ throughout


STANDING DUMBBELL OVERHEAD POWER PRESS:

- place one foot just in front of the other for stability if desired, though ultimately go with the stance that affords you the most power; if this happens to entail a slight backward lean or otherwise it is acceptable for this particular overhead press variation
- no push/bounce from the knees though


SIDE LATERAL MOVEMENTS

- bring feet together
- "shove" shoulders/hands down before beginning the movement each rep
- hold DB's only with the delts (consciously try to relax biceps, triceps, forearms & traps)
- side deltoids should remain on top throughout (palms down, perpendicular to the ground);
- slightly internally rotate shoulders at the top (though wrists should remain straight)
- Avoid "shrugging" the weights up, keep them as far away as possible while maintaining
- a very slight and consistent ridged bend in the elbows (relax traps, especially at the bottom)
- On the concentric, initiate through the elbows (no hands), and think about "dragging" the weight parallel to the ground for as long as you can before reaching to the sides. Go up until the arms are perpendicular to the body once at the top.

DUMBBELL LATERAL RAISES:

- start/end about 30º from the torso (just short of where tension is removed from the shoulders)
* as an advanced technique and intensifier, this movement may also be done with fully locked out elbows (squeeze triceps); perform with minimal weight and very strict form


CABLE LATERAL RAISES:

(hold opposite cable with opposite hand & perform seated if possible, though standing is acceptable)
- come across the body at the bottom as far as a ridged arm (which should be maintained throughout) will allow
* If performing one-arm variation, with the resting arm, hold the apparatus so that balance moreover, the form is not an issue
* if the minimum cable machine weight is not appropriate to hit goal reps, use "rest /pause." training, for example; perform as many reps as possible, then take 10 seconds rest and repeat through to completion


INCLINE PRONE LATERAL RAISES:

(high incline, approximately 75º)
- push chest into a pad and keep torso tall throughout


SUPPORTED LYING ONE-ARM LATERAL RAISES:

- perform lying sideways on an incline bench set at a relatively high incline (75º or so)


REAR DELT MOVEMENTS

- bring feet together
- bend over to 90º, head facing the ground, chest up, elbows slightly bent and ridged
- (optional: to assist in eradicating extraneous movement, perhaps rest head on the top of a bench set at around a 30º incline (depending on height); if performing seated, bend forward until the trunk is parallel to ground/chest is resting on thighs)
- either keep shoulders protracted forward or retracted back (I recommend forward) with hands inline with chin and arms ridged throughout
- minimize scapula (shoulder blade) movement, raise weights only until scapula fires
- reach for the ground at the bottom and the side walls on the way up
- think about pulling from the elbows (as opposed to the wrists/hands)
- elbows should face the side wall (turned out, inline with the angle of force)
* as an intensifier, lock the arms/triceps out and raise; take a lighter weight though and be meticulous with form

BENT OVER DUMBBELL LATERAL RAISES:

- start/end only to the point at which tension is removed from the rear delts (approx. 30º from torso)
- focus on resisting against gravity during the descent


BENT OVER CABLE LATERAL RAISES:

(remove handles, position cables at the bottom, hold opposite cable with opposite hand)
- with "slightly" bent arms (though ridged), come right across the body as far as possible (the wrists should cross each other given that the angle of force from the cables maintains tension beyond a perpendicular plane (unlike when using dumbbells)
* if the minimum cable machine weight is not appropriate to hit goals reps, use "rest/pause" training, i.e., perform as many reps as possible, then take 10 seconds rest and repeat through to completion


FRONT RAISE MOVEMENTS

- feet together, arms locked-out, shoulder-width grip
- on the way up, "drag" weights as close to the bottom as possible for as long as possible
- squeeze front delts throughout (no swing)

DUMBBELL / BARBELL FRONT RAISES: (overhand or underhand-grip)

- when using dumbbells, squeeze them together at the top
- when performing with a barbell, "shove" inwards throughout (intention)
- when using an underhand-grip and a barbell, if keeping the hands internally rotated
causes any pain, the use of a Cambered bar or E Z bar is acceptable

FROM A VERTICAL BODY POSITION:

- raise to eye-line
- stop just short of vertical at the bottom (30º or so)

SUPINE ON AN INCLINE BENCH (FACING AWAY FROM THE BENCH):

- set incline relatively high (75º or so)
- raise only to eye-line, just short of perpendicular to the floor
- bring right down, momentarily touching the thighs at the bottom

PRONE ON INCLINE BENCH (FACING BENCH):

- high incline (75º approx.) and avoid slouching
- raise to just short of parallel to the ground
- lower to just short of perpendicular at the bottom

LOW CABLE, CABLE FRONT RAISES / FLOOR LYING CABLE FRONT RAISES

- keep shoulders in the same position throughout, arms straight and triceps locked
- bring the weights up "under" the pecs (not over the top / outside them) and across the body squeezing the front delts and pecs also (everything across the front)

SPECIFIC TO STANDING VERSION:

- when facing away from the apparatus, take a big step forward so that cables are pulling the body backward (not arms out to the sides)
- if / when facing the apparatus, stand close and only come down to the point immediately Before where tension is lost in the front delts (a good few inches in front of the torso)
(if unable to complete goal reps, step back a little to reduce the "pull" from the cables and perform final reps with a neutral-grip)

SPECIFIC TO FLOOR LYING VARIATION (LIE WITH HEAD, NOT FEET, FURTHEST FROM THE APPARATUS):

- ensure to lie far enough away that the cable is still applying tension at the bottom
- keep the back flat on the ground to eliminate inertia (swing)

PLATE “BUS DRIVER” FRONT RAISES:

- underhand grip (for the greater range at the bottom)
- raise to eye line at the top and rotate in one direction (like turning a steering wheel)
- rotate back to center, then lower the weight as far as the weight plate will allow
- rotate to the opposite side at the top next time etc.

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